1. Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations can cause dystonia, including mutations in the DYT1 gene, which is responsible for the most common form of dystonia, primary dystonia.
2. Brain injury: Traumatic brain injury, stroke, or other brain injury can cause dystonia.
3. Infections: Certain infections, such as encephalitis, can cause dystonia.
4. Toxins: Exposure to certain toxins, such as carbon monoxide, can cause dystonia.
5. Medications: Certain medications, such as antipsychotics, can cause dystonia.
6. Metabolic disorders: Metabolic disorders, such as Wilson’s disease, can cause dystonia.
7. Neurodegenerative diseases: Neurodegener