1. Maternal infection during pregnancy, such as toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and parvovirus B19.
2. Maternal use of certain medications during pregnancy, such as valproic acid, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine.
3. Maternal autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Maternal exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as lead and mercury.
5. Family history of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
6. Premature birth.
7. Low birth weight.
8. Male gender.