1. Maternal intake of antithyroid drugs during pregnancy, such as propylthiouracil (PTU) or methimazole (MMI), can cause congenital hypothyroidism in the fetus.
2. Maternal autoimmune thyroid disease, such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, can cause the mother’s body to produce antibodies that attack the fetal thyroid gland, leading to congenital hypothyroidism.
3. Maternal iodine deficiency can lead to a lack of iodine in the fetal thyroid gland, resulting in congenital hypothyroidism.
4. Maternal thyroid hormone deficiency can lead to a lack of thyroid hormones in the fetal thyroid gland, resulting in congenital hypothyroidism.
5. Maternal genetic mutations can cause the fetus to inherit a defective thyroid gland