1. Genetic mutations: Congenital axonal neuropathy with encephalopathy can be caused by genetic mutations in genes such as GARS, NEFL, and MPZ.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as lead, mercury, and arsenic, can increase the risk of developing this condition.
3. Infections: Certain infections, such as cytomegalovirus, can cause this condition.
4. Metabolic disorders: Metabolic disorders, such as mitochondrial disorders, can lead to this condition.
5. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus, can cause this condition.