Congenital abducens nerve palsy is a rare condition that is caused by a variety of factors. These include:
1. Birth trauma: Abducens nerve palsy can be caused by trauma to the head or neck during delivery.
2. Infection: Maternal infections during pregnancy, such as rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus, can cause abducens nerve palsy.
3. Genetic factors: Abducens nerve palsy can be caused by genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.
4. Tumors: Tumors in the brain or skull can cause abducens nerve palsy.
5. Other causes: Other causes of abducens nerve palsy include hydrocephalus, vascular malformations, and inflammatory diseases.