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About Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy

What is Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy?

Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy is a neurological disorder caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the brain. It is a rare condition that can occur in infants and children with severe jaundice. Symptoms of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy include seizures, developmental delays, and movement disorders. Treatment typically involves phototherapy and medications to reduce the levels of bilirubin in the body.

What are the symptoms of Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy?

The symptoms of Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

-Lethargy

-Irritability

-Poor feeding

-Seizures

-Developmental delay

-Cerebral palsy

-Hearing loss

-Vision loss

-Movement disorders

-Speech and language delays

-Behavioral problems

-Cognitive impairment

-Muscle weakness

-Ataxia (lack of coordination)

-Hypotonia (low muscle tone)

-Hypertonia (high muscle tone)

-Feeding difficulties

-Growth failure

What are the causes of Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy?

The most common cause of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy is an inherited disorder called Crigler-Najjar syndrome. This disorder is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme glucuronyl transferase, which is responsible for breaking down bilirubin in the liver. Other causes of chronic bilirubin encephalopathy include Gilbert's syndrome, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, and Rotor syndrome. In some cases, chronic bilirubin encephalopathy can be caused by a blockage in the bile ducts, which prevents bilirubin from being eliminated from the body.

What are the treatments for Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy?

1. Phototherapy: Phototherapy is the most common treatment for chronic bilirubin encephalopathy. It involves exposing the baby to special blue lights that help break down the bilirubin in the baby's body.

2. Exchange transfusion: Exchange transfusion is a procedure in which the baby's blood is removed and replaced with donor blood. This helps reduce the amount of bilirubin in the baby's body.

3. Medications: Medications such as phenobarbital and phenytoin may be prescribed to help reduce the amount of bilirubin in the baby's body.

4. Diet: A special diet may be recommended to help reduce the amount of bilirubin in the baby's body. This may include avoiding certain foods that can increase bilirubin levels.

What are the risk factors for Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy?

1. Prematurity
2. Prolonged jaundice
3. Blood group incompatibility
4. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
5. Hemolytic anemia
6. Infection
7. Hypoxia
8. Hyperbilirubinemia
9. Exchange transfusion
10. Liver disease

Is there a cure/medications for Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy?

There is no cure for chronic bilirubin encephalopathy, but medications can be used to help manage symptoms. These medications may include anticonvulsants, sedatives, and muscle relaxants. In some cases, physical therapy and occupational therapy may also be recommended.