1. Genetic factors: Certain genetic conditions, such as Down syndrome, can increase the risk of brain malformations, musculoskeletal abnormalities, facial dysmorphism, and intellectual disability syndromes.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as alcohol, drugs, and radiation, can increase the risk of these conditions.
3. Maternal health: Poor maternal health, such as smoking, poor nutrition, and infections, can increase the risk of these conditions.
4. Premature birth: Babies born prematurely are at an increased risk of developing these conditions.
5. Family history: A family history of these conditions can increase the risk of developing them.