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About Adult-onset myasthenia gravis

What is Adult-onset myasthenia gravis?

Adult-onset myasthenia gravis is a chronic autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that is characterized by varying degrees of weakness of the skeletal (voluntary) muscles of the body. The hallmark of myasthenia gravis is muscle weakness that increases during periods of activity and improves after periods of rest. Symptoms may include drooping eyelids, double vision, slurred speech, difficulty chewing and swallowing, and weakness in the arms and legs.

What are the symptoms of Adult-onset myasthenia gravis?

The most common symptoms of adult-onset myasthenia gravis include:

- Muscle weakness, especially in the face, neck, and arms
- Difficulty speaking, chewing, and swallowing
- Double vision
- Drooping eyelids
- Fatigue
- Difficulty breathing
- Muscle twitching
- Weakness in the legs
- Difficulty lifting objects

What are the causes of Adult-onset myasthenia gravis?

The cause of adult-onset myasthenia gravis is unknown. However, it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. This leads to the production of antibodies that block or destroy the receptors for acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that helps muscles contract. Other possible causes include genetic factors, viral infections, and exposure to certain drugs.

What are the treatments for Adult-onset myasthenia gravis?

1. Medications:
• Cholinesterase inhibitors (e.g. pyridostigmine, neostigmine, ambenonium)
• Corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone)
• Immunosuppressants (e.g. azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine)
• Monoclonal antibodies (e.g. rituximab, eculizumab)

2. Surgery:
• Thymectomy (surgical removal of the thymus gland)

3. Other treatments:
• Plasmapheresis (plasma exchange)
• Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)
• Ac

What are the risk factors for Adult-onset myasthenia gravis?

1. Age: Adult-onset myasthenia gravis is most common in people between the ages of 20 and 40.

2. Gender: Women are more likely to develop adult-onset myasthenia gravis than men.

3. Family history: Having a family member with myasthenia gravis increases the risk of developing the condition.

4. Autoimmune diseases: People with other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, are more likely to develop adult-onset myasthenia gravis.

5. Certain medications: Taking certain medications, such as penicillamine, can increase the risk of developing adult-onset myasthenia gravis.

Is there a cure/medications for Adult-onset myasthenia gravis?

Yes, there are treatments available for adult-onset myasthenia gravis. These include medications such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, immunosuppressants, and corticosteroids. Surgery may also be an option for some people. Additionally, physical and occupational therapy can help improve muscle strength and coordination.