1. Exposure to alkylating agents such as benzene, ethylene oxide, and radiation.
2. A family history of leukemia or myelodysplastic syndromes.
3. Certain genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, Fanconi anemia, and Bloom syndrome.
4. Previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy for other cancers.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene, formaldehyde, and pesticides.
7. Older age.
8. Certain blood disorders, such as myeloproliferative disorders and myelodysplastic syndromes.